This research work is an exploratory study based on literature review, on training programs within the hotel industry or hospitality industry. The information gathered and discerned in this research work will explore the training needs of the employees in hotel industry and will give an insight on effectiveness of training and development in hotel industry. Since all employees need training and development no matter what industry they are in, other industries’ insights may offer new perspectives to the hospitality industry. Another constraint in this research work is the term training to encompass both training and development. Training is the activities that are designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs whereas development is the learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus. Although training and development usually go hand in hand, they differ in that training can be done by all staff, whereas development is usually undertaken by the trainee’s supervisors or managers. Training also tends to be more specific while development looks more at the long-term professional goals. The trainer will teach specific skills and knowledge to the trainee in order to obtain specific goals for their present position. During the development process, staff will meet with their supervisor and or manager to discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and how to improve work performances to help expand and broaden their current career path. This research work critically examines the importance and the evaluation of training and development needs in the hospitality industry or the importance to an organization’s success.
Training or Staff training and development is chosen to be the topic of this research work and its evaluation in view to the hospitality industry, because understanding Human Resource Management extensively in business brings unimaginable benefits and due to the author's personal interests in this subject after finishing her practical training.
Moreover, this is also a great opportunity to get to know Human Resource Management in a deeper perspective, although Training and development is just a small part of Human Resource Management, it is really interesting to take a close look at it and evaluates is need in the hospitality industry.
In this chapter, the background of the research work and the aim of this study study will be introduced, objectives, motivation statement of problem, samples of research question, the hypothesis that will be hypotheses in the light of this research and then the significance and scope, limitation and terms used in the research work will be explained. In the light of this research work the researcher seek to evaluate the needs for training and development of workers/staff in the hospitality industry.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
Training and human development activity has increase greatly over the past few decades. According to Fulmer (1988, p57), annual estimation of over $40 billion is spent on human resources development (HRD) and training in schools, Business centers, Tourist centers and Hospitality industries around the world. Such huge expenditure on HRD requires evaluation to determine the effectiveness of training and development program whether it meets its desired objectives, for the course of this study Hospitality industry.
It is very important to understand the fundamental differences between training and development, this distinction is necessary when examine the methods of measuring training and development.
Training is concerned with imparting specific skills for a particular purpose. Training is the sequence of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. Training is the act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
“Training is the process that provides employees with the knowledge and the skills required to operate within the systems and standards set by management.” (Sommerville 2007)
Management development is all those activities and programme when recognized and controlled have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in going so all likely to increase his potential for future assignments.
Thus, management development is a combination of various training programme, though some kind of training is necessary, it is the overall development of the competency of managerial personal in the light of the present requirement as well as the future requirement.
Development an activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers and to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational requirements is management development.
Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge, and much of this section deals with taking a positive progressive approach to this sort of traditional 'training'.
Importantly however, the most effective way to develop people is quite different from conventional skills training, which let's face it many employees regard quite negatively. They'll do it of course, but they won't enjoy it much because it's about work, not about themselves as people. The most effective way to develop people is instead to enable learning and personal development, with all that this implies. So, as soon as you've covered the basic work-related skills training that is much described in this section
- focus on enabling learning and development for people as individuals - which extends the range of development way outside traditional work skills and knowledge, and creates far more exciting, liberating, motivational opportunities - for people and for employers.
Rightly organizations are facing great pressure to change these days - to facilitate and encourage whole-person development and fulfillment - beyond traditional training.
The world is changing rapidly in everyday life. In order to be able to catch up the paces, making the best use of the personnel’s abilities became of tremendous significance in the businesses, therefore Resource development and training needs to be carefully considered and implemented. It should be able to deal with the effects of the changing world of work, which means that people who work in the industries have to be aware of the implications of globalization, technology changes, workforce diversity, labor shortages, changing skill requirements, the contingent workforce, decentralized work sites, and employee involvement etc. Because when either one aspect of above changes in the working process, it could change the whole business operation, therefore, it is important for the industries to be prepared and to take control. (Christina Pomoni 2009.)
Staff training and development is an essential and indispensable part of Human Resource Management, “the importance and value of staff training and development has long been recognized. Consider the popular and often repeated quotation, Give a person a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a person to fish and you feed him for a lifetime‟.” (Mcclelland 2002, 7) This understandable and far-sighted saying was from a famous ancient Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius. This saying has explained clearly how important it is to train an employee to conquer his/her work than just give him/her a job of income. By observing today's business climate and the exponential growth in technology with its effect on the economy and society, the need for training and development is more pronounced than ever.
1.2STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Billions of naira have been spent on training and developing workers and staffs, in general every organization. Fulmer (1988, p57) and more are done so as to see that the workers are trained and developed to stand the task of work ahead of them within the organization, and now, looking at the situation stated above and the cost of embarking on workers training and development, which is very high and much have been spent on it, which is an identified problem that necessitated and deemed it necessary to evaluate the needs and determine the real stand of training and development, its concepts and motivation within the hospitality industry, also the researcher wants to look and see if there is actually need for training and development needs in the hospitality industry in our country today.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research is going to present to the readers a thought of what is HRM, Staff Training and development, the importance of staff training and development in the hospitality/hotel industry, and at the same time, a research is conducted on staff training and development in the case hotel where the author did the practical training, in the research opinions about staff training and development in the hotel from employees in different positions will be obtained, front line staff, supervisor, manager etc.
The researcher seek to achieve some of the following points and ideas in the course of this study as its objectives, which are:
1.To determine the cost involved in each of the hotel/hospitality industry in carrying out their staff training and development for each occasion.
2.To ascertain the level of input of trained worker and that of a non-trained staff in the industry.
3.To evaluate the needs on workers training and development within the hospitality industry.
4.To promote and highlight the possible ways to attain success and efficiency in the hospitality industry.
5.To bring to light the real reason for the industry to embark on training and development of their workers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this research work will be of help to the hospitality industry at a whole, as it will be a key and focal point for them on how to handle and tackle the case and issues with training and development within their industry if there is a doubt of mind on it.
This research work, will also, be a source of learning tools in the hands of students and other researchers in the field of this study, in general for academic benefits. This research work will serve as a proposal tools to other hospitality industry in diverse geo-location as it is capable of forecasting the profit increase rise in training and development as compared to non-trainee and non-developed workers.
In other to complete this research work, the researcher have embarked on, and using a survey method and questionnaire to accomplish this work, the researcher framed out some research questions that will be administered for the respondents. Which are?
1.What is your estimated cost involved in carrying out their staff training and development for each occasion.
2.Is there any significant difference in the level of input of trained worker and that of a non-trained staff in the industry?
3.Do you find any need in workers training and development within the hospitality industry?
4.Have you ever been trained and developed to face your job as a worker
5.If yes or No? What was or is there any difference within you toward your job as a worker/staff
6.Is there any motivation among trained and development workers love to their work?
7.What is the primary reasons for the management to embark on training and development?
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